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Who is paying for vapor factor in the gas ? to learn more join the discussion on :

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A vapor (American spelling) or vapour (see spelling differences) is a substance in the gasphase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature.[1] This means that the vapor can be condensed to a liquid or to a solid by increasing its pressure, without reducing the temperature.

For example, water has a critical temperature of 374°C (or 647 K) which is the highest temperature at which liquid water can exist. In the atmosphere at ordinary temperatures, therefore, gaseous water is known as water vapor and will condense to liquid if itspartial pressure is increased sufficiently.

A vapor may co-exist with a liquid (or solid). When this is true, the two phases will be in equilibrium, and the gas pressure will equal the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid (or solid).[2]

Who is paying for vapor factor in the gas ? to learn more join the discussion on :

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A vapor (American spelling) or vapour (see spelling differences) is a substance in the gasphase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature.[1] This means that the vapor can be condensed to a liquid or to a solid by increasing its pressure, without reducing the temperature.

For example, water has a critical temperature of 374°C (or 647 K) which is the highest temperature at which liquid water can exist. In the atmosphere at ordinary temperatures, therefore, gaseous water is known as water vapor and will condense to liquid if itspartial pressure is increased sufficiently.

A vapor may co-exist with a liquid (or solid). When this is true, the two phases will be in equilibrium, and the gas pressure will equal the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid (or solid).[2]

Contents

  1 Properties
  2 Vapor pressure
  3 Examples
  4 Measuring vapor
  5 Vapors of flammable liquids
  6 See also
  7 References

Properties

Vapor refers to a gas phase at a temperature where the same substance can also exist in the liquid or solid state, below the critical temperature of the substance. If the vapor is in contact with a liquid or solid phase, the two phases will be in a state of equilibrium. The term gas refers to a compressible fluid phase. Fixed gases are gases for which no liquid or solid can form at the temperature of the gas (such as air at typical ambient temperatures). A liquid or solid does not have to boil to release a vapor.

Vapor is responsible for the familiar processes of cloud formation and condensation. It is commonly employed to carry out the physical processes of distillation and headspace extraction from a liquid sample prior to gas chromatography.

The constituent molecules of a vapor possess vibrational, rotational, and translational motion. These motions are considered in the kinetic theory of gases.

Vapor pressure

Main article: Vapor pressure

Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

The vapor pressure is the equilibrium pressure from a liquid or a solid at a specific temperature. The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid or solid is not affected by the amount of contact with the liquid or solid interface.

The normal boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to one atmosphere (unit).[3]

For two-phase systems (e.g., two liquid phases), the vapor pressure of the system is the sum of the vapor pressures of the two liquids. In the absence of stronger inter-species attractions between like-like or like-unlike molecules, the vapor pressure follows Raoult's Law, which states that the partial pressure of each component is the product of the vapor pressure of the pure component and its mole fraction in the mixture. The total vapor pressure is the sum of the component partial pressures.[4]

The physical chemistry behind distillation is based on manipulating the equilibriumoccurring between the liquid and vapor phases of a molecule in solution.

Examples

Water vapor is responsible for humidity

  Perfumes contain chemicals that vaporize at different temperatures and at different rate in scent accords known as notes.
  Atmospheric water vapor is found near the earth's surface, and may condense into small liquid droplets and form meteorological phenomena such as fog, mist andhaar.
  Mercury-vapor lamps and sodium vapor lamps produce light from atoms inexcited states.

Measuring vapor

Since it is in the gas phase, the amount of vapor present is quantified by the partial pressure of the gas. Also, vapors obey the barometric formula in a gravitational field just as conventional atmospheric gases do.

Vapors of flammable liquids

Flammable liquids do not burn when ignited. It is the vapor cloud above the liquid that will burn if the vapor's concentration is between the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) and Upper Flammable Limit (UFL) of the flammable liquid.

See also

Search Wiktionary Look up vapor or vapour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  Evaporation
  Water vapor
  Dilution (equation)
  Vapor pressure
  Vapor Trail
  Vaporizer
  Gas phase
  Henry's Law
  Raoult's Law

References

  1. ^ R.H.Petrucci, W.S.Harwood and F.G.Herring, "General Chemistry", 8th edition (Prentice-Hall 2002), p.486
  2. ^ Petrucci et al. p.483
  3. ^ Petrucci et al. p.484
  4. ^ Thomas Engel and Philip Reid, "Physical Chemistry" (Pearson Benjamin-Cummings 2006) p.194
     

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States of matter

 
Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
Phase change - en.svg
 
Low-temperature Bose–Einstein condensate · Fermionic condensate · Superfluid · Supersolid
 
High-energy Degenerate matter · Quark–gluon plasma ·Strange matter · Supercritical fluid
 
Other Colloid · Superconductivity · Supercooling ·Superglass · Superheating
 
Concepts Boiling point · Cooling curve · Critical point ·Equation of state · Melting point · Phase transition · Triple point
 
Lists List of states of matter

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vapor"

Categories: Gases | Pressure | Chemical properties

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vapor

 

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Last modified: 09/17/15.